Comparative evaluation of antioxidant levels in the serum of patients with periodontitis and diabetes mellitus after scaling and root planing
The present study was designed to estimate and compare the levels of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), glutathione, catalase, and Total Antioxidant Capacity (TOC) in the serum of patients with periodontitis (CP) and diabetes mellitus type II (DM) before and after scaling and root planning (SRP). A single-blinded longitudinal study comprising 100 subjects, equally divided into four groups. Patients were categorized into group I (healthy patients), group II (systemically healthy patients with CP), group III (periodontally healthy patients with DM) and group IV (patients with CP and DM). Periodontal parameters such as gingival index, plaque index, clinical attachment level, and pocket probing depth were recorded. SRP was performed on all the patients. Serum samples were collected before and after SRP and sent for biochemical analysis. Results obtained were analyzed using ANOVA, Post hoc Tukey and paired t-test. The results showed significantly (p<0.001) lower levels of serum TAC, SOD, Glutathione, and catalase in DM, DMCP, and CP groups compared to healthy controls. Post-treatment values of TAC, Glutathione and Catalase increased in all groups but did not reach levels of healthy controls. Post-treatment values of serum SOD reached control levels only in the CP group, while values in the DM group did not vary significantly. The present study demonstrated the efficacy of scaling and root planing in improving serum antioxidant parameters by reducing the inflammatory load. The study further strengthens the inter-relationship between periodontitis and diabetes mellitus.