Vitamin D and periodontal health in postmenopausal women – an observational study
Menopause is considered a phase in a woman’s life attributed to several changes in the body due to the deficiency in circulating estrogen. Decrease in estrogen levels are also associated with vitamin D deficiency, as estrogen is required for the activation of vitamin D. Vitamin D is essential in maintaining alveolar bone health. A deficiency of vitamin D could be associated with an increased risk of developing periodontal disease. With this background, the study was conducted to evaluate the salivary vitamin D level and periodontal health in postmenopausal women. A number of 70 systemically healthy postmenopausal women were included in the study. Periodontal parameters such as bleeding on probing (BOP), plaque index (PI), probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were assessed. In addition, saliva samples were collected and evaluated for vitamin D levels using an ELISA kit. The data were then subjected to statistical analysis. The salivary vitamin D levels were found insufficient in the majority of the subjects (75.71%). Mean CAL was 2.89±0.79, the mean PD was 2.86±0.79, the PI score was 1.6±0.82 and BOP was 56.79±5.13. Only 37% of participants had good plaque scores. There was a strong negative correlation between the salivary vitamin D level and the periodontal clinical parameters, which was highly statistically significant (p<0.01). Postmenopausal women had insufficient levels of vitamin D and this, in turn, could have a negative impact and increase the risk for periodontal disease.