Perinatal outcomes of pregnancy with gestational diabetes in a secondary care hospital in Tamil Nadu, India
The prevalence of gestational diabetes has been reported as 17.9% in Tamil Nadu. Women with GDM are at a higher risk of developing pregnancy complications and adverse outcomes. This study was conducted to look at various outcomes of infants of diabetic mothers to enable better management and focus on prevention. This was a hospital-based non-concurrent cohort study. Women diagnosed with gestational diabetes using the IADSPG guidelines were identified and the outcomes of their neonates were studied. The association between various factors and poor outcomes was estimated using the Chi-square test and odds ratio. The prevalence of GDM was 24.2%, with an increase in maternal age and obesity. LGA (Large-for-Gestational-Age) babies were more in the group with diabetes. This was statistically significant with both GDM (RR 3.39) and Pregestational diabetes (RR 8.93). Among the neonates with GDM or pregestational diabetes, the RR for perinatal asphyxia was 0.98 (0.61–1.58) and 2.07 (0.52–8.28), respectively. There were more neonates with hypoglycemia as well as jaundice in the groups being treated with drugs. The risk of neonatal complications increases when diabetic women are on drugs for glycemic control than those on a diet alone. Our study’s overall incidence of neonatal complications was lower than most studies.