TGF‐β1 AND VCAM-1 SERUM CONCENTRATIONS AS DIAGNOSTIC BIOMARKERS OF DIABETIC KIDNEY DISEASE PROGRESSION
Backgound and aims: Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and vascular adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) have been proposed as promising biomarkers for multiple diseases. TGF-β1 and VCAM-1 are reported to be associated with diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and end stage renal disease in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM). Material and methods: The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of circulating TGF-β1 and VCAM-1 and to assess their potential as a blood-based biomarker for DKD in T1DM and T2DM patients. Results: The study included 124 participants: 66 patients with T1DM, 58 with T2DM and 20 healthy controls. The diabetic patients were classified according to the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). First group - eGFR ≥90ml/min/1.73 m² (n=39), second group eGFR 89-60 ml/min/1.73m² (n=45), and third group eGFR 59-45 ml/min/1.73m2 (n=40). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative detection of was used to evaluate blood TGF- β1 and VCAM-1 expression. It was found that there were higher TGF- β1 and VCAM-1 in all diabetic patients compared with healthy controls (P<0.05). TGF- β1 and VCAM-1 were higher in group with eGFR ≥90ml/min/1.73 m² and gradually increased in the groups with eGFR89-60 ml/min/1.73m² and eGFR 59-45 ml/min/1.73m2. TGF- β1 and VCAM-1 were less in T1DM, than T2DM in all study groups. Regression analysis revealed reverse associations between TGF- β1, VCAM-1 and eGFR (P<0.05). TGF- β1 and VCAM-1 correlated positively with albuminuria and negatively with renal function. Conclusion: In discriminating overall patients from healthy subjects, ROC analysis revealed areas under the curve (AUCs) of 1,0 for TGF- β1 for T1DM and T2DM, VCAM-1 0,866 for T1DM, 0,923 for T2DM (P<0.001). The results suggested that blood‑based TGF- β1 and VCAM-1 may serve as potential biomarkers for early detection of DKD.