Histological analysis of the placenta in patients with preeclampsia, taking into account the proposed treatment
Background and aims: Preeclampsia is a critical condition syndrome that occurs during pregnancy and may lead to the complications and fetal lesions. The aim of this study is to optimize the algorithm for the treatment of patients at high risk preeclampsia associated with metabolic syndrome by morphologically proven effects on the placental complex. Material and method: Material for histological examination was collected from the peripheral, medial and central parts of the placental disc and placental amnion. Tissue fragments were processed in a LogosOne histoprocessor and embedded in paraffin blocks. Results: In the first study group (standard protocol treatment) there were histological changes which should be regarded as morphological markers of functional disorders in the "mother-placenta-fetus" system that accompany late preeclampsia. Metaplasia of the cylindrical epithelium of the fetal surface into a multilayered flat, increased proliferative activity of epitheliocytes whith formation of plaque-like structures and growths in the placental amnion was observed. In the second study group (modified treatment) the intensity and prevalence of pathological changes were significantly lower than in the first study group. The citral structure of the amniotic epithelium was preserved, desquamation was not observed. Conclusions: Based on the results of histological examination, it can be stated that complex modified therapy of preeclampsia associated with metabolic syndrome allows to normalize the structure of the placenta, which is objectively confirmed by reducing the frequency of alternative changes in the placental amnion, epithelium and stroma of chorionic villi.
Keywords: preeclampsia, placenta, histology, metabolic syndrome, treatment.