In vivo antihyperglycaemic activities of different solvent partitioned extract of Lawsonia inermis leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model
Diabetes mellitus is a global problem mostly characterized by abnormal elevation of blood glucose. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is on the rise globally. Insulin and various synthetic oral antidiabetics are easily available to manage diabetes mellitus, but their use has been limited due to significant side effects, toxicity and ineffectiveness in chronic patients. This study aimed to assess the antidiabetic effect of Lawsonia inermis leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Lawsonia inermis leaves were partitioned using N-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Extracts obtained were assessed for their antidiabetic activities on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Thirteen groups of diabetic rats (n=5) were orally administered 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg of each of the three partitioned extracts, metformin (50 mg/kg), glibenclamide (5 mg/kg), while untreated hyperglycaemic and normoglycaemic rats received distilled water daily for 28 days. Lawsonia inermis solvent-partitioned extracts did not cause hypoglycemia in normoglycemic rats 24 hours postprandial. The extracts decreased blood glucose levels in diabetic rats with 100 mg/kg methanol extracts being the most potent. The glucose transport-4 (Glut-4) and pancreatic islet count increased significantly in extract-treated rats compared to untreated diabetic rats. Histopathology results of the pancreas of Lawsonia inermis treated rats showed reduced histoarchitectural abnormalities when compared to untreated diabetic control. The results obtained from this study confirmed the hypoglycaemic properties of the leaves of Lawsonia inermis Linn with basic mechanisms of enhancing Glut-4 mobilization and its ability to stimulate β-cells regenerating from the pancreas.