Cytomorphometric evaluation of exfoliated cells of the tongue and it’s correlation with clinical findings in type II diabetic patients
Background and Aims: Exfoliative cytology is a non-invasive diagnostic method that has been used for decades to analyse cellular and nuclear alterations. Diabetes Mellitus(DM) is a common metabolic illness that results in chronic hyperglycemia, as well as significant cellular alterations in the oral mucosa, particularly in the tongue which is often neglected. Hence we carried out a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the exfoliated epithelial cells of the tongue and clinical changes that manifested in tongue associated with Uncontrolled and Controlled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Material and Methods: Tongue smears were obtained 125 in Uncontrolled T2DM (Group I), 125 Controlled T2DM (Group II) and 30 control individuals (Group III) along with clinical examination of the tongue. PAP stained smears were subjected for the analysis of nuclear area (NA), cytoplasmic area (CA) and cytoplasmic area to nuclear area ratio (C/N) using digital analyzer system and PAS stained smears were subjected for the assessment of Candida organisms. Results: Cytomorphometric assessment of the tongue smears showed increased nuclear area, decreased cytoplasmic area and decreased mean cytoplasmic area to nuclear area ratio among study group and control group, PAS stained smears showed positivity for candida organisms in 53.6% in Group I and 44.0% in Group II. Clinical correlation with cytomorphometric changes among Group I and II did not show any statistical significance in the present study. Conclusion: The results obtained from our study emphasizes the role of exfoliative cytology as a diagnostic tool in contributing to the general understanding of the changes in the tongue in patients with Uncontrolled and Controlled T2DM.