Serum micronutrient levels in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus
Several factors such as stringent dietary practices and occult malabsorption disorders may compromise the nutrition of children with T1DM, but the data regarding the dietary status of Indian T1DM children is limited. Hence, this study was conducted to assess serum and blood levels of vitamins, minerals, and essential trace elements in children and adolescents with T1DM. Twenty T1DM (serum IgA tissue transglutaminase antibody-negative) and 20 age-matched apparently healthy children were included in the study. Blood samples were collected in the fasting state to estimate serum vitamins (except vitamin C), macrominerals, zinc, copper, and iron, and whole blood essential trace elements (cobalt, chromium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, tin, vanadium). The analysis revealed comparable age, sex, height standard deviation score (SDS), and weight SDS between the two groups. There were no significant differences in the levels of any of the vitamin level except for higher serum vitamin B5 (32.5±10.8 vs. 26.27±6.25 ng/ml, p = 0.018), blood manganese levels (13.95±4.23 vs. 11.78±1.65 ng/ml, p=0.039) and lower blood tin levels (0.99±0.36 vs. 1.33±0.35 ng/ml, p=0.005) in T1DM individuals than controls. All subjects had hypovitaminosis D (25-hydroxy vitamin D: 10–30 ng/ml). To conclude, most of the serum vitamins, minerals, and essential trace element levels of T1DM children and adolescents are comparable to controls. Most Indian children and adolescents, including those with T1DM, require supplementation with vitamin D.