Comparison of serum nitric oxide, sialic acid and alkaline phosphatase in type 2 DM patients with and without chronic periodontitis
Periodontitis and diabetes cause a hyperinflammatory immune response with elevated reactive oxygen species and cytokines. A few mediators of the ensuing inflammation are nitric oxide (NO), sialic acid (SA) and ALP (alkaline phosphatase). Hence, this study aimed to compare and correlate the level of serum NO, SA and ALP in diabetes mellitus with and without chronic periodontitis patients prior to and after non-surgical periodontal treatment. A total of 100 patients were included: healthy controls (Group A), DM (Group C, D) and chronic periodontitis (Group B, C). Serum samples of NO, sialic acid and ALP were analyzed before and after the treatment. Post-hoc Tukey HSD test was used for intergroup comparison levels, and the Analysis of Variance Test (ANOVA) was used to compare values before and after treatment in all groups. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Baseline means NO, SA and ALP levels were highest in DM with periodontitis (65.37, 156.09, 272 µM/L), respectively. Inter-group comparison of NO, SA and ALP values before and after treatment was statistically significant (P<0.001). Diabetes significantly impacts the exacerbation of inflammation and elevation of serum NO, SA and ALT in periodontitis. Additionally, periodontal therapy produced a beneficial result.