Pathogenesis of type-2 diabetes mellitus and its complications – a narrative review
Diabetes mellitus is the dynamic group of metabolic disorders whose progression leads to various complications. This review focuses on the dominance of type 2 diabetes among the diabetic population, risk factors, biomarkers, pathogenesis and therapeutic agents. It also explains the importance of drug therapy obtained from natural origin. In this review, we have presented an overview of the incidence of the glucose-induced release of insulin from β cells of the pancreas and its action on various tissues involved in the maintenance of blood glucose levels. Lifestyle modifications can be influential in preventing type 2 diabetes from further complications. In general, a sedentary lifestyle proved to be one of the crucial factors for the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. In addition, many biomarkers consort with type 2 diabetes and its complications. This review has shown a few important biomarkers to be examined at different stages of type 2 diabetes (prediabetes, newly diagnosed and known diabetes). Additionally, recent approaches to drug therapy that are conventional and traditional sources as an alternative therapy have been discussed.