Association of urinary biomarkers of chronic kidney disease with type 2 diabetes
This extensive review can assist the researcher in assembling and constricting the study’s hypothesis on the molecular mechanism of CKD, which is more prevalent in type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. It targets the role of urinary biomarkers and their importance compared to serum markers involved in CKD-associated T2D patients. This review highlights the significance of urinary exosomal RNAs, including expressions of miRNA and ncRNA, involved in the molecular diagnosis of renal injury. Next-generation sequencing and ncRNASeqScan serve as an emerging bioinformatic tool to predict the ncRNAs in urinary exosomes and to pattern transcriptomes extensively. Urinary biomarkers of CKD provide a primary target source in the prognosis of the disease, whereas their levels in serum are significantly high after the progression of CKD. Hence, biomarkers are heterogeneous groups of factors executing several molecular mechanisms involved in various signal transduction pathways occurring on the cell surface.