Nutritional status and risk of diabetes mellitus type 2 among medical students
Background and Aims: The phenomenon of the 21st century is a significant predominance of obesity in most countries. The metabolic effects of obesity (impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hyperlipidemia, and hypertension) correlate more closely with abdominal obesity. Purpose is to investigate the features of nutritional status and the risk factors of the developing of T2DM in medical students. Material and Methods: 200 young medical students I-VI courses (according to WHO classification) were investigated. There were 140 Ukrainians and 60 - foreigners (Arabian). Physical examination (anthropometry), tonometry, anamnesis assessing, including data on the risks of the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) (Findrisk scale),
and statistical methods were used. Results: Among the risk factors there are violations of the nutritional status, despite the students being sufficiently informed about the harmfulness of the use of fast food, alcohol consumption, insufficient physical activity (especially in Ukrainians), family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (especially in foreigners) and having continuous stress were found to be the most significant. Almost most of foreign students consume alcohol and are smokers. That is a fairly high rate for medical students who are well aware of the harmfulness and consequences of alcohol abuse and smoking. Reducing the risk of developing T2DMand CVD is possible when changing modifiable risk factors, such as nutrition, physical activity,
stress and deliverance of bad habits, such as smoking and drinking alcohol. Conclusions: 1. Most Ukrainian and foreign medical students have various risk factors of developing T2DM. Despite medical students being sufficiently informed about the harmfulness of consuming fast food, the risk factors were found to be one of the most significant. 3. Among risk factors of T2DMare excess weight and obesity as result of violations of the nutritional status, alcohol consumption, smoking (especially in foreign students), insufficient physical activity (especially in Ukrainian students) and family history of T2DM (especially in foreign students).