Colorectal cancer in patients with diabetes mellitus
Background and Aims: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and colorectal cancer are two common diseases, with a growing trend and the major causes of mortality and morbidity, with a negative impact on life expectancy and quality of life, with socio-economic impact, which makes them a major public health problem. DM is the etiopathogenic factor involved in several diseases, including cancer. There are numerous studies on DM as a risk factor for breast, endometrial, pancreatic, liver cancer, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, but also colorectal cancer. Material and Method: The study includes patients hospitalized in the Gastroenterology Department for digestive symptoms who after a colonoscopic and bioptic examination were diagnosed with colon/rectal adenocarcinoma and who were subsequently hospitalized in the General Surgery Department for surgery. Patients were divided into
two groups: with and without diabetes mellitus. All patients in the study followed the same oncological protocol and were monitored dynamically at 3-6-9-12 months after diagnosis. Results: Diabetic patients were frequently associated with obesity and a more advanced stage of the oncological disease (DM – stage I:20%, stage II: 24%, stage III: 36%, stage IV: 20%; non-DM – stage I: 23%, stage II 28.2%, stage III: 34.7%, stage IV: 14.1%). No major differences were observed among diabetic patients regarding the type of antidiabetic treatment and the stage of the disease. Postoperative complications were more common in diabetic patients (24%), and the survival rate was slightly lower among patients with DM (80%). Conclusions: The long-term survival of colorectal cancer patients who have received surgical treatment depends on the stage of the disease, the patient’s age, and the associated pathologies. DM brings additional contributions to oncological risk, being a risk factor for the oncological process in general and for colorectal cancer in particular.