Retinopathy and chronic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus
To evaluate the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) and also the association between RD and CKD and their association with cardiometabolic and sociodemographic factors, in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Material and method
We studied medical records of 443 consecutive hospitalized adult patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetic chronic complications, insulin secretion, diabetes therapy, control and duration, cardiometabolic and sociodemographic data were assessed.
The current study indicates that the overall prevalence of DR was 63.4%. Of these, 31.6% had nonproliferative DR and 31.8% had proliferative DR.
The overall prevalence of CKD was 51.7%, of which 26.2% had only eGFR <60mL/min/1.73m2), 39.5% had only albuminuria, and 11.8% (0.14–0.74%) had both.
In 28.9% of patients, DR and CKD were associated, and only 12.7% of patients had neither DR nor CKD.
The simultaneous presence of DR and CKD was significantly associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, peripheral artery disease and also with long lasting diabetes. 2.4% of patients with DR associated with CKD were newly diagnosed with diabetes.
Patients with DR associated with CKD presented significantly higher BMI and waist compared with patients with CKD alone and with patients without DR or CKD and higher uric acid levels compared with patients with DR alone and with patients without DR or CKD.
The results of this study indicate a high prevalence of DR and CKD both isolated and associated in hospitalized type 2 diabetic patients, providing data on their prognosis and association with several cardiometabolic risk factors.