Romanian Journal of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases <p>The <strong>Romanian Journal of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases</strong> is the journal of the <strong>Romanian Society of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases</strong>.</p> <p>It appeared for the first time in 1992, in Romanian language and beginning with 2006 it was published entirely in English. It is a peer reviewed journal, therefore the accepted articles were peer-reviewed by <strong>at least two scientific experts</strong> in the field.</p> <p>It contains <strong>original papers</strong>, including fundamental and clinical research, <strong>literature reviews</strong>, <strong>clinical reports</strong>, <strong>editorials</strong>, articles that contain the <strong>results of the most important clinical studies</strong>, reports from the important congresses and <strong>book reviews</strong>.&nbsp;</p> <p>In Romanian Journal of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases there may be published only papers exclusively sent to this journal, not published previously. The authors should include possible conflicts of interest and financing sources. The laws of copyright and international rules of scientific research are respected.</p> <p>The Romanian Journal of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases <strong>strictly requires</strong> for all the scientific work published <strong>to be 100% compliant</strong> with the&nbsp;<a title="ICMJE.ORG" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals</a>&nbsp;and with the&nbsp;<a title="Best Practices" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing</a> (joint statement by COPE, DOAJ, WAME, and OASPA).</p> <p>This journal appears trimestrially (four numbers/year). 650-800 copies are printed on each number.</p> <p>ILEX Printing House, Bucharest, has the exclusivity for the typesetting, printing and distribution of the Romanian Journal of Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases.</p> <p>Our journal is recognized by the Romanian National University Research Council (CNCSIS - 2009) to be part in the B+ category, Code 322.</p> <p>The Romanian Journal of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases is currently indexed in:</p> <p>- Index Copernicus<br>- Get Cited<br>- SCOPUS<br>- Scirus<br>- Celdes<br>- CNKI Scholar (China National Knowledge Infrastucture)<br>- CNPIEC<br>- EBSCO - TOC Premier<br>- EBSCO Discovery Service<br>- Google Scholar<br>- J-Gate<br>- Naviga (Softweco)<br>- Primo Central (ExLibris)<br>- SCImago (SJR)<br>- Summon (Serials Solutions/ProQuest)<br>- TDOne (TDNet)<br>- Ulrich's Periodicals Directory/ulrichsweb<br>- WorldCat (OCLC)</p> Romanian Society of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases en-US Romanian Journal of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases 2068-8245 Cytokine profile and C-reactive protein level in patients with ischemic heart disease on the background of metabolic syndrome <p><strong>Background and aims:</strong> <em>The work aimed to study the levels of interleukins 1β, 6, 18, and C-reactive protein in the blood serum of patients with ischemic heart disease. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Material and method:</em></strong><em> Clinical and laboratory examination of 120 persons from verified ischemic heart disease (IHD) was carried out, of which 60 patients with IHD without metabolic syndrome (group 1) and 60 patients with metabolic syndrome (59 men, 1 woman) - group 2. Age of patients 55±2 yrs. The presence of metabolic syndrome was assessed based on the level of triacylglycerols. The obtained laboratory values ​​were compared with the control group, which included 30 healthy individuals. All study subjects were tested for serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18, and C-reactive protein (CRP).</em> <strong>Conclusions: </strong><em>It was found that metabolic syndrome in patients with coronary artery disease acts as a trigger for the synthesis of several pro-inflammatory cytokines. Statistically significant increase in IL-1β (1.5 times), IL-6 (8.3 times), IL-18 (1.4 times), and CRP (1.3 times) in group 2 compared to group 1 of patients indicates the presence of an inflammatory process. Determination of the cytokine status of IHD patients can be a biomarker for the development of an inflammatory response. </em></p> Mariia Shchurko Nataliia Lapovets Lyubov Lapovets Viorika Mykolaivna Akimova Halyna Bashta Galyna Lebed Olha Martianova Yuliia Stepas Yevhenii Pysarenko Natalija Bojkiv ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 28 2 121 125 Peculiarities of carbacetam effect on the processes of fibrinolysis and proteolysis in the brain of rats with neurodegeneration induced by type 2 diabetes mellitus <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong><em>Introduction:</em></strong> <em>Diabetic neurodegeneration is formed with underlying type 2 diabetes mellitus which is an independent factor promoting development of cognitive disorders. Considering an important role of GABA receptors in the development of neurodegenerative processes, the issue concerning </em><em>C</em><em>arbacetam effect produced on proteolytic and fibrinolytic mechanisms of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus with experimental simulation of type 2 diabetes mellitu</em><em>s</em><em> has become of a certain interest. </em><strong><em>Material and Methods:</em></strong><em> Type 2 diabetes mellitus was simulated by streptozotocin in the dose of 30 mg/kg injected through the peritoneum of rats kept during 30 days on a high-fat diet with a free access to fructose solution</em><em>. </em><strong><em>Results:</em></strong><em> Under conditions of pathological process development the activity of the main groups of proteolytic enzymes intensify in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Carbacetam administration to rats with diabetes mellitus promotes reduction of proteolysis processes which might be associated with pharmacodynamics of the drug. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> The data obtained experimentally substantiate reasonability of pathogenic correction by means of Carbacetam in case of disorders of proteolytic and fibrinolytic systems activity in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus induced by type 2 diabetes mellitus.</em></p> Olga Kmet ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 28 2 126 130 Complex treatment of patients with complicated syndrome of diabetic foot and sepsis <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> Efforts to improve survival in sepsis are based on a series of urgent medical interventions. The article presents the data obtained in the process of complex treatment of patients, in which sepsis was caused by complicated diabetic foot syndrome.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Materials and methods.</strong> The article presents materials on the retrospective study of treatment results of 1678 patients with complicated diabetic foot syndrome. In 146 patients (8,7%) the disease was burdened with sepsis.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Results</strong><strong>. </strong>A common feature of the treatment strategy for patients in both groups was surgical intervention, the administration of antibiotic therapy (ABT) and infusion-transfusion therapy. Thanks to the developed algorithms of help it was managed to improve the results of septic patients’ treatment.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Conclusions</strong><strong>.</strong> The applied tactics of treating patients with sepsis has allowed to reduce the frequency of execution of high amputations and postoperative complications, increase the number of "small" amputations, which led to a reduction in mortality, shortening the length of patients’ stay in the hospital.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> sepsis, diabetic foot syndrome, amputation, antibiotic therapy.</p> Sergey Dmitrievych Shapoval Oleg Volodimirovych Tribushniy Igor Leonidovych Savon Mihail Mihailovych Sophylkanych Viktor Oleksandrovich Shidlovskyi Larisa Anatolievna Vasilevska Michael Ivanovich Sheremet ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 28 2 131 136 Correlation of Glycated Hemoglobin and Glucose levels after Oral Glucose Tolerance test in gestational diabetes patients: A Cross Sectional study <p><strong>Abstract :</strong></p> <p>Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a prevalent and potentially serious condition which may put both mothers and neonates at risk. The current recommendation for diagnosis is the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). OGTT is a cumbersome test that is time consuming.So we want to test the utility of HbA1c as a screening tool in pregnancy for Gestational Diabetes mellitus. <strong>Aim</strong>: This study aimed to determine the usefulness of HbA1c test as a diagnostic tool for GDM as compared to the traditional criteria based on the OGTT. <strong>Materials and methods:</strong> This study was done among 156 pregnant women of the age group of 20-40 yrs with gestational period of 24-28weeks attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology OPD of Chettinad Hospital and research institute, Chengalpattu from July 2019 to December 2019.<strong>Results:</strong> The HbA1c values will be correlated with OGTT values using Pearsons correlation analysis and there was significant correlation between HbA1c and post glucose values.(p valu&lt;0.05).ROC curve analysis done for HbA1c showed an area under the curve of 0.569.<strong> Conclusion: </strong>HbA1c may have a role in the diagnosis of GDM, but further studies among large populations might be required to approve the use of HbA1c instead of OGTT in the diagnosis of GDM.</p> <p>Key words: Gestational diabetes mellitus;Glycate hemoglobin;OGTT</p> Anuradha Shankar, Dr D.V. Satya Murthy G, Dr Sumathy S, Dr Santhini Gopalakrishnan S, Dr. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 28 2 137 141 Association between glycated hemoglobin and vitamin D levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus <p><strong><em>Background and Aims: </em></strong>Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most common chronic disorders, affecting millions of people around the world. Vitamin D may enhance secretion of insulin from the beta cells of pancreas, increase glucose uptake by the peripheries and decrease systemic inflammation. Hence the study aims to find out the role of vitamin D deficiency in pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus.</p> <p><strong><em>Materials and Methods</em></strong><strong>: </strong>A total of 52 T2DM patients were included in the study. The mean level of vitamin D and Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) were assessed. Fundoscopic evidence was collected to look for evidence of diabetic retinopathy. For that routine urine check was done to look for evidence of proteinuria, which indicating diabetic nephropathy. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong><strong>:</strong> Our study indicated that there is an inverse relationship between HbA1c and serum Vitamin D levels in diabetics. There is increase in the micro vascular complications of T2DM with decrease in vitamin D levels.</p> Nishchitha K., Dr. Supriya P. S., Dr. Shuaib Ahmed M. A., Dr. Prakash P. S., Dr. Pratheeksha Rai G., Dr. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 28 2 142 147 Association of atherogenic indices with metabolically unhealthy obesity phenotype <p><strong>Background and aims</strong>: Obesity is a risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Clinical studies have identified two subtypes of obesity: metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUHO), the latter being associated with an increased risk of mortality from any cause or CV events. Therefore, for better phenotyping, several atherogenic indices such as atherogenic index and lipid accumulation product have been used that can be calculated at the routine control in order to detect people at high cardiovascular risk. <strong>Material and method:</strong> This was a retrospective study. A total of 163 obese participants (n=118 metabolically unhealthy subjects with a mean ± s.d. body mass index (BMI) of 37.8±5.7 kg/m²) took part in this study. Body composition was assessed by electrical bioimpedance; fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, creatinine, transaminases and serum insulin were obtained using standard protocols. <strong>Results:</strong> The frequency of metabolic syndrome was 72.8%. Patients with MUHO were significantly older, with a higher weight, BMI, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio compared to MHO. All atherogenic indices were statistically significantly higher in patients with MUHO. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> We described several clinical parameters that are accessible in medical offices, which can help the clinician in better phenotyping and identifying MUHO, in order to implement preventive measures to reduce cardiovascular risk.</p> Andrada Alina Muresan Adriana Rusu Camelia Larisa Vonica Nicolae Hancu Gabriela Roman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 28 2 148 154 The relevance of adiponectin in diabetic patients during the dental implant <p align="JUSTIFY">Background and aims - A<span style="color: #000000;">diponectin is a peptide hormone secreted by adipocytes and plays a protective role against the development of insulin resistance</span>. <span style="color: #000000;">Diabetes mellitus, or uncontrolled glycaemic level, is one the factors for the failure of dental implant. </span>The study aimed to show the relevance of adiponectin in diabetic patients during dental implants.</p> <p align="JUSTIFY">Material and methods – The study was conducted on 152 patients. Out of these, 94 were males and 58 were females, 71 were diabetics following treatment <span style="color: #000000;">anti-diabetic drugs or on insulin therapy, or on both and 81 were non-diabetics. The a</span>nthropometric measurements and the blood pressure were noted and the glycaemic and the adiponectin levels were assessed before and after the implant.</p> <p align="JUSTIFY">Results – The study revealed that adiponectin was <span style="color: #000000;">inversely correlated and it decreased with the increase in body mass index. In </span><span style="color: #000000;"><span lang="en-US">comparing the diabetic group with the non-diabetic one, before and after the implant, the average adiponectin was significantly higher in the non-diabetic group (5.03 vs 2.16, p&lt;0.001, respectively 5.24 vs 2.24, p&lt;0.001).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY">Conclusions – The study concludes that a<span style="color: #000000;">diponectin is one of the potential biomarkers for the early detection of the development of diabetes and metabolic syndrome and that its low levels might lead to the failure of the dental implant.</span></p> Meenu Goel Prashant Goel Amorin Remus Popa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 28 2 155 159 Retinopathy and chronic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus <p><strong><em>Aims</em></strong></p> <p><em>To evaluate </em><em>the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and&nbsp; chronic kidney disease (CKD) </em><em>and also the association between</em><em> RD and CKD </em><em>and their association with </em><em>cardiometabolic and sociodemographic factors,</em><em> in patients with type 2 diabetes.</em><em>&nbsp; </em></p> <p><strong><em>Material and method </em></strong></p> <p><em>We studied medical records of 443 consecutive hospitalized adult patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetic chronic complications, insulin secretion, diabetes therapy, control and duration, cardiometabolic and sociodemographic data were assessed.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong></p> <p><em>The current study indicates that the overall prevalence of DR was 63.4%. Of these, 31.6% had nonproliferative DR and 31.8% had proliferative DR. </em></p> <p><em>The overall prevalence of CKD was 51.7%, of which 26.2% had only eGFR &lt;60mL/min/1.73m<sup>2</sup>), 39.5% had only albuminuria, and 11.8% (0.14–0.74%) had both. </em></p> <p><em>In 28.9% of patients, DR and CKD were associated, and only 12.7% of patients had neither DR nor CKD.</em></p> <p><em>The simultaneous presence of DR and CKD was significantly associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, peripheral artery disease and also with long lasting diabetes. 2.4% of patients with DR associated with CKD were newly diagnosed with diabetes.</em></p> <p><em>Patients with DR associated with CKD presented significantly higher BMI and waist compared with patients with CKD alone and with patients without DR or CKD and higher uric acid levels compared with patients with DR alone and with patients without DR or CKD. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p><em>The results of this study indicate a high prevalence of DR and CKD both isolated and associated in hospitalized type 2 diabetic patients, providing data on their prognosis and association with several cardiometabolic risk factors.</em></p> Butaina Haj Simona Georgiana Popa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 28 2 160 169 Pitfalls in establishing type of diabetes and optimal therapy: clinical cases series <p><em>Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease characterized by absolute endogenous insulin deficiency.</em></p> <p><em>We report three clinical cases which highlight the particularities of diagnosis and evolution of patients with type 1 diabetes.</em></p> <p><em>These three cases have been diagnosed in different circumstances. The first case with symptoms of hyperglycemia and inaugural diabetic ketoacidosis, without detecting a precipitating factor; the second case accidentally diagnosed, in the absence of hyperglycemia symptoms; and the last case in the context of symptoms of hyperglycemia and ketosis precipitated by a respiratory infection. The cases are characterized by the presence of autoimmunity markers (anti-GAD positive antibodies) and C peptide within normal range. In dynamics, with the initiation of insulin therapy and the remission of glucotoxicity, the insulin requirement decreased progressively, in all patients therapeutic regimen being represented by a low dose of basal insulin, in the conditions of a C peptide still within normal limits at 4 years (first case), one year (second case), respectively 2 years (third case) from the diagnosis and without significant glycemic variability registered on the continuous glycemic monitoring system.</em></p> <p><em>In the third case, there is a lack of regression of insulin requirements after remission of SARS COV-2 infection, and in the second case, the maintenance of prandial insulin secretion sufficient to induce hypoglycemia after administration of a minimal dose of prandial insulin, but insufficient to control postprandial glycemia in the conditions of omitting the administration of prandial insulin.</em></p> <p><em>In each of the cases previously presented we highlight the existing pitfalls in establishing the diagnosis and especially the challenges in choosing the optimal therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes, as the evolution can sometimes be atypical.</em></p> Florentina Cristina Matei Nicoleta Alexandra Şonei Ana Maria Simion Simona Georgiana Popa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 28 2 170 177 Prevalence of diabetes and diabetes complications in a south-eastern county from Romania <h1>Abstract</h1> <p><strong>Background and aims:</strong> The literature confirms that, due to the global increase in the incidence of obesity and sedentary lifestyle, there has been an increase in the number of cases of type 2 diabetes among children. Thus, this pathology has the potential to become a global health problem with devastating effects on health. Through the present clinical research we sought to determine the role that individual variables play in increasing the risk of complications.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>This retrospective, consecutive-case study, enrolled 2493 adult patients diagnosed with diabetes, attending scheduled visits in the Diabetes outpatient or hospitalized in the Diabetes Clinic between January 2017 and December 2019. Data was collected from the patient’s record and further analyzed using SPSS IBM Statistics V26 statistical package.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The peak of incidence of diabetes complications was in the 60-65 years age-group, respectively polyneuropathy (63.6% for newly diagnosed patients vs 83.4% in patients with previously known diabetes) The most common comorbidities were HBP (61.7% % for newly diagnosed patients vs 64.3% in patients with previously known diabetes) and dyslipidemia (33.2 % for newly diagnosed patients vs 43.8% in patients with previously known diabetes). Complications were associated with poor glycemic control (serum blood glucose above 220 mg / dl, respectively HbA1C of more than 9.36% ± 2.2%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> In our study, there was in increased number of complications, the most frequent being the polyneuropathy. Also, even the newly diagnosed diabetes patients had multiple comorbidities associated.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Voineag Cristiana Barbu Raisa-Eloise Bogdan-Goroftei Roxana Elena Iuliana Moraru Bogdan Pompiliu Mircea Elkan Eva Maria Stefan Diana Simona Popescu Nicolae Radulian Gabriela ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 28 2 178 184 Combined effects of κ-carrageenan and monosodium glutamate food additives: effect on free radical oxidation <p><strong><em>Background and aims: </em></strong><em>The universal mechanism that plays a key role in the implementation of the action of most toxic agents is the activation of free radical processes and the development of oxidative stress. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate the indicators of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in rat tissues using a solution of κ-carrageenan, monosodium glutamate (MSG), and their combined effects to establish possible relationships. <strong>Material and methods: </strong>The study was performed on 48 white nonlinear male rats that were divided into 4 groups: 1st - control (intact animals); 2nd – animals that were intragastrically injected with κ-carrageenan at a dose of 40 mg/kg for 1 month; 3rd - animals that were intragastrically injected with MSG at a dose of 50 mg/kg for 1 month; 4th - animals that were intragastrically injected with κ-carrageenan and MSG in the above doses.We tested the levels of diene conjugates, active products of thiobarbituric acid, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. <strong>Results: </strong>The highest activation of free radical oxidation was observed in lung tissues with the use of MSG and the combined effect of κ-carrageenan and MSG, whereas the lowest studied indicators of lipid peroxidation were registered in all tissues of group 1. The lowest values of the antioxidant defense system parameters were found in 3-d group, while the use of κ-carrageenan caused an increase of SOD and CAT activity with the highest values in liver tissues <strong>Conclusions</strong>: The combined use of a solution of κ-carrageenan and MSG has a negative effect on the processes of free radical oxidation, which is manifested by a statistically significant increase of lipid peroxidation products levels in blood serum, lungs and liver and decreased activity of antioxidant system enzymes in the lungs and liver and in the process significant medium-strength correlations between pro- and antioxidants were established</em></p> Petro Buchko Inna Krynytska Mariya Marushchak ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 28 2 185 195 The current fetal cell-free DNA in the blood of pregnancies without complications and with gestational and diabetes 2 type mellitus <p><strong><em>Abstract. </em></strong>Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) has another name for non-invasive prenatal screening (NIPS) - this area of prenatal diagnosis is rapidly developing and using the latest technologies. New generation sequencing for detection of fetal extracellular DNA in maternal plasma or other methods for evaluating extracellular DNA is the basis of NIPT and is used in 80% of cases to detect the main aneuploidies - trisomy 13, 18, 21.</p> <p>This study was aimed at comparing two simplified methods for isolating fetal DNA from peripheral blood, and then comparing the results in pregnant women without complications and pregnancies with one type of complication.</p> <p><em>Results. </em>We tested peripheral blood samples from 64 normal and 29 abnormal pregnancies fetuses. The gestational age had a mean of 21 weeks. Maternal age has a median of 29 years. From 10 mL of maternal blood, we isolated a mean of 10.3 ± 1.15 × 10<sup>6</sup> mononuclear cells. The median number of isolated fetal nucleated red blood cells, corrected for 10 mL blood, was 31.2 × 104 cells in group II 72.4 × 104 – group I after magnetic‐activated sorting and 11.7 × 104 cells in group abnormal pregnancy, 29.5 × 104 – normal after hemoglobin enrichment. There is a significant statistical difference between the numbers of total NRBC isolated by the two techniques and research groups (P&nbsp; &lt; 0.001).</p> <p><em>Conclusion<strong>. </strong></em>Using a modified single-cell–based droplet digital PCR (sc-ddPCR) NIPT, researchers conducted a proof-of-concept study that successfully assessed the genetic information of extremely rare fetal cells in patients with uncomplicated pregnancy and women with gestational diabetes mellitus, as well as in pregnant women with type 2 diabetes complicated by hypertension.</p> Svetlana Mykolaivna Gramatiuk Irіna Yuriivna Bagmut Elena Arturovna Yakovenko Yevheniia Nikolaevna Babadzhanian Michael Ivanovich Sheremet Igor Leonidovich Kolisnyk Vitaliy Vasilyevich Maksymyuk Volodimir Volodimirovich Tarabanchuk Petro Vasilyevich Moroz Volodymyr Volodymyrovych Bezruk ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 28 2 196 201 Obesogenic behaviors, impact on the general population <p>Obesity is a chronic multifactorial, multisystemic disease, responsible for 4,7 million premature deaths annually. [1] The epidemic of obesity is an important challange for public health all across the world. Now more than ever, obesity afects globally both developing countries and wealthy societies. More than half of the European population is affected by adiposity. [2] Obesity-related diseases are responsible for the reduction of the life expectancy with almost four years. Rising prevalence of obesity raises the risk of debilitating multimorbidity and mortality.&nbsp; Personal behaviors such as diet, physical activity, screen time, stress levels have an important role the efficiency of individual interventions and comorbidity prognostic. [2] The excessive weight gain at the population level leads to cardiometabolic, pulmonary and oncological comorbidities.&nbsp; [2]</p> Mariana Spătărelu Amorin Remus Popa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 28 2 202 208 Nutritional assessment of patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease: a review <p class="root-block-node" style="text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;">It is a well known fact that the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) increases each year. It has a complex etiology that includes irreversible risk factors such as age, genetics, race, and ethnicity, as well as reversible risk factors such as diet, physical activity, and smoking. The goals of this review are to look at various studies that investigate the paths to assess the nutritional status of patients with T2DM who are also linked to chronic diseases. In patients with type 2 diabetes, malnutrition has been recognized as a serious health problem, mainly in hospitalized conditions. Therefore, we gathered information that helps the physician look into the patient’s nutritional status in order to have a better outcome.</p> Ioana Păunică Anca Pantea Stoian Cristian Serafinceanu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 28 2 209 217 Diabetic tongue – a review <p>Diabetes Mellitus is a longstanding illness, presenting with severe complications directly proportional to the degree of hypoglycemia affecting all age group of people. Among all the organs of the body, oral manifestations are mostly the initial complication and could even promise an early diagnosis of the disease. Xerostomia due to tumefaction of salivary gland, burning sensation of oral cavity, recurrent ulcers, angular chelitis, oral lichen planus, infections and periodontal disease are all the commonest oral abnormalities detected in the patient with diabetic mellitus. However, there is very minimal literature regarding the tongue lesions associated with diabetes mellitus which are often neglected. Hence, this paper aims to review the literature regarding the tongue lesions and complications associated with diabetic mellitus and possible future prospects.</p> Balamanikandan P., Dr Pushparaja Shetty Urvashi Shetty, Dr ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 28 2 218 222 The Effect of Antidiabetic Drugs on the Musculoskeletal System in Women <p>Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic endocrine disorder caused by absolute or relative lack of insulin, which subsequently leads to hormonal and metabolic changes in the body. Since patients receive continuous long-term antidiabetic treatment, there was a chance to analyse the effect of antidiabetic drugs on bone tissue in type 2 DM patients. The results of the studies indicate that bone metabolism is the most adversely affected by treatment with thiazolidinediones and canagliflozin from the group Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors, while Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors and Insulin have a positive effect on it, and, finally, Glucagon-like peptide-1, Biguanides and Sulfonylureas have rather a slight impact on the bone tissue.</p> Alina Urbanovych Oksana Kryvko ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 28 2 223 226