Romanian Journal of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases <p>The <strong>Romanian Journal of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases</strong> is the journal of the <strong>Romanian Society of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases</strong>.</p> <p>It appeared for the first time in 1992, in Romanian language and beginning with 2006 it was published entirely in English. It is a peer reviewed journal, therefore the accepted articles were peer-reviewed by <strong>at least two scientific experts</strong> in the field.</p> <p>It contains <strong>original papers</strong>, including fundamental and clinical research, <strong>literature reviews</strong>, <strong>clinical reports</strong>, <strong>editorials</strong>, articles that contain the <strong>results of the most important clinical studies</strong>, reports from the important congresses and <strong>book reviews</strong>.&nbsp;</p> <p>In Romanian Journal of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases there may be published only papers exclusively sent to this journal, not published previously. The authors should include possible conflicts of interest and financing sources. The laws of copyright and international rules of scientific research are respected.</p> <p>The Romanian Journal of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases <strong>strictly requires</strong> for all the scientific work published <strong>to be 100% compliant</strong> with the&nbsp;<a title="ICMJE.ORG" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals</a>&nbsp;and with the&nbsp;<a title="Best Practices" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing</a> (joint statement by COPE, DOAJ, WAME, and OASPA).</p> <p>This journal appears trimestrially (four numbers/year). 650-800 copies are printed on each number.</p> <p>ILEX Printing House, Bucharest, has the exclusivity for the typesetting, printing and distribution of the Romanian Journal of Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases.</p> <p>Our journal is recognized by the Romanian National University Research Council (CNCSIS - 2009) to be part in the B+ category, Code 322.</p> <p>The Romanian Journal of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases is currently indexed in:</p> <p>- Index Copernicus<br>- Get Cited<br>- SCOPUS<br>- Scirus<br>- Celdes<br>- CNKI Scholar (China National Knowledge Infrastucture)<br>- CNPIEC<br>- EBSCO - TOC Premier<br>- EBSCO Discovery Service<br>- Google Scholar<br>- J-Gate<br>- Naviga (Softweco)<br>- Primo Central (ExLibris)<br>- SCImago (SJR)<br>- Summon (Serials Solutions/ProQuest)<br>- TDOne (TDNet)<br>- Ulrich's Periodicals Directory/ulrichsweb<br>- WorldCat (OCLC)</p> en-US (Dragoș Crețoiu) (Dragoș Crețoiu) Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Serum C-peptide levels as a predictor of beta-cell function in children with type 1 diabetes <p>C-peptide levels are important for assessing residual insulin secretion from β cells in individuals with Type 1 diabetes (T1DM). This study aimed to evaluate serum C-peptide levels in pediatric patients with T1DM and correlate them with various clinical and laboratory parameters. In a case-control study, 80 children aged 2–15 years with T1DM were enrolled, and an additional 80 non-diabetic healthy children were included as a control group. Laboratory data encompassed plasma glucose, C-peptide, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), pancreatic autoantibodies (anti-GAD), Thyrotropin, and Tissue transglutaminase antibodies-IgA (Anti-TTG-IgA). We conducted correlation analyses between C-peptide levels and clinical/laboratory parameters among children with T1DM. The chi-square test was employed, with a significance threshold set at p≤0.05. The mean age at diagnosis of T1DM was 8.11 years, with a mean disease duration of 3.84 years. The average HbA1c level was 10.94%. Twenty-seven out of eighty patients had a positive family history of diabetes, and the average GAD antibody level was 118.128 IU/ml. Serum C-peptide levels in children with T1DM were significantly lower than those in non-diabetic children (0.189 ng/ml vs. 2.960 ng/ml, respectively), indicative of reduced residual B-cell function. Correlation analyses revealed associations between C-peptide levels and age at diagnosis, disease duration, BMI, and fasting blood sugar, but not with HbA1c or anti-GAD levels. Patients with lower C-peptide levels tended to be diagnosed at a younger age and had a longer mean disease duration. Fasting C-peptide levels are valuable indicators for predicting beta-cell function in pediatric T1DM patients. Early initiation of treatment may be essential to preserve pancreatic beta-cell function.</p> Abbas Abed Khazaal, Miami Kadhim Yousif, Ahmed Jaafar Hendi, Dhaighum Imad Atwan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The relationship between fibrinogen levels, inflammatory biomarkers and peripheral arterial disease risk factors in patients with metabolic syndrome from Northwestern Algeria <p>Risk factors for peripheral arterial diseases (PAD) are smoking, diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia, which are components of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Our objective was to investigate the role of inflammatory biomarkers and plasma fibrinogen levels in the association of PAD with MetS. A cross-sectional comparative study including patients with and without PAD was conducted for five months. The diagnosis of PAD was made by an ankle-brachial index (ABI) &lt;0.9 and confirmed by angiography. MetS was defined according to NCEP ATPIII criteria and raised fibrinogen levels were defined as plasma fibrinogen ≥4 mg/l. Of a total of 518 patients, 15.6% had PAD. In PAD patients, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic pressure, lipid profile and fibrinogen levels were significantly higher (p&lt;0.05). Binary logistic regression revealed that the male gender was more at risk of PAD, and tobacco is a powerful predictor of PAD (OR=3.04). Cardiovascular disease and PAD each highlighted significant contributions to fibrinogen control (p&lt;0.001); diabetics and smokers were, respectively, 2.03[1.15–3.47] and 1.58[0.78–3.19] times more at risk of poor fibrinogen control. 14.1% with MetS developed PAD versus 1.5% without MetS (p&lt;0.001). In conclusion, high fibrinogen levels in Mets increase the risk of PAD. Peripheral arterial disease prevention may be involved in correcting MetS components and controlling fibrinogen levels.</p> Imane Bouragba, Mustapha Diaf ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of some biochemical parameters in patients with metabolic syndrome <p>The term “metabolic syndrome” indicates a collection of metabolic abnormalities that raises a person’s risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus type w (T2DM). Hypertension, obesity, glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia are all symptoms of MetS. The primary risk factor for DM development is insulin resistance (IR), which is the critical stage of metabolic syndrome. The current research sought to compare levels of IR in 3 study groups. The current research comprised 50 patients with metabolic syndrome, 50 cases with a minimum of 1 metabolic syndrome symptom as a pathological control, and 50 healthy controls. In the current research, various available kits were used to measure hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), fasting insulin, fasting blood glucose, and lipid profile, which included the triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) concentrations. The present investigation revealed highly significant differences across study groups; however, no significant differences were found when comparing the two genders of the same sub-groups.</p> Maitham Abdallah Naas Albajy, Shurooq Asaad Abdulameer Shaher, Dan Florin Mihailescu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Unveiling the atherogenic lipoprotein particle: A case-control study <p>One of the leading causes of death and morbidity in the globe is cardiovascular disease (CAD). According to the WHO statistics from the year, 17.9 million individuals die worldwide every year from cardiovascular diseases. One of the simplest alternatives to computed LDL levels is to make use of non-HDL lipoprotein. Comparing non-HDL cholesterol to LDL cholesterol has shown that multiple research studies have demonstrated non-HDL cholesterol’s superior ability to identify risks for CAD. In order to compare and contrast LDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels in individuals with CAD, the present investigation will compare and contrast these two measurements. Fifty healthy people between the ages of thirty and seventy-five were included in the study as controls, whereas 130 patients with CAD diagnoses were included as cases. The study was conducted among 180 patients who were diagnosed with cardiovascular disease. The positive relationship between non-HDL-cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels is seen by the Pearson correlation. Using non-HDL cholesterol, an independent T-test yields a positive result of &lt;0.001. The study’s conclusion is that non-HDL cholesterol yields results that are similar to Friedwald’s well-established LDL-C. Non-HDL-C can be used as a marker for CAD deduction and also for diagnostic and therapeutic markers for CAD.</p> Jaya Janani, Karpagavel lakshmanan, Santhini Gopalakrishnan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Study on the effectiveness of Ocimum basilicum seed extract against various kinds of bacteria that cause urinary tract infections <p>The present study was conducted to determine the inhibitory activity of Ocimum basilicum extracts on the bacteria causing urinary tract infections. Plant samples were collected from the Nasiriyah region in southern Iraq. It was dried and ground, then extracted from the sample seeds. Ethanol, hexane, and qualitative chemical tests were conducted to determine the active components of the extracts. The efficacy of these extracts was tested at concentrations (100%–75%–50%–25%) on bacteria isolated from urinary tract patients at Al-Hussein Teaching Hospital in Thi Qar. The results showed a significant effectiveness of the ethanol extract and less than that of the hexane extract. The extracts with concentrations (100% and 75%) recorded a higher inhibition rate than (50% and 25%) and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 25%. The ethanolic extract of O. basilicum seeds was the most effective against the tested gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria strains, whereas the hexane extracts were less effective against all tested pathogenic bacteria. This suppression may result from the chemical composition of extracts containing secondary metabolites.</p> Khulood Yasser Sheal Sheal, Haider Radhi Malih ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The correlation between vitamin D deficiency with tear film break-up time in patients with dry eye syndrome <p>Dry eye syndrome (DES) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the ocular surface. Vitamin D (V-D) is a multifunctional hormone, and its roles are calcium metabolism and bone health, it is anti-inflammatory, has immune-regulatory properties and has been suggested to be a contributory factor in DES. The study aimed to determine the correlation between vitamin D deficiency and the magnitude of dry eye syndrome. A prospective comparison study was conducted from October 2022 to May 2023, enrolling 100 (200 eyes) cases of dry eye symptoms. Patients were subjected to the following examinations: slit-lamp examination, non-contact tonometry, fundus examination with 90D as a routine examination, and TBUT. Blood collected as five ml of venous blood drawn from them. The kit used is Elecsys Vitamin D kit. Tear film break-up time (TBUT) values (7 seconds) and (8 seconds) were more prevalent at 35% and 37%, respectively. V-D (ng/ml) concentration was deficient in 32%. V-D deficient was found to be more in TBUT value (5 seconds) as (21%), with a high statistically significant difference (p&lt;0.0001). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to determine the association of V-D levels in patients with DES. Female gender, greater BMI, and elderly are the strongest risk factors for DES. Patients with dry eye symptoms have shorter TBUT values. The higher the V-D deficiency, the shorter the TBUT values, and the more severe the DES. V-D deficiency is a strong predictor for the development of DES. The V-D has a proportional relationship with TBUT values.</p> Dhuha Nadhim Jasim, Maitham Ali Abdul-Nabi, Aymen Majeed Fadil ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The interaction between ChREBP rs3812316 gene variant and FiberCreme-IMO cookies on triglyceride levels of hyperlipidemic subjects <p>A high-fiber diet can reduce the triglyceride levels of hyperlipidemic subjects. FiberCreme-IMO is a non-dairy creamer product containing fiber that potentially improves the triglyceride profile. Genetic variants of ChREBP rs3812316 may affect triglyceride response on the consumption of FiberCreme-IMO cookies. This study investigated the effect of FiberCreme-IMO on triglyceride levels and the interaction between FiberCreme-IMO and genotypes of ChREBP rs3812316 on triglyceride levels of hyperlipidemic subjects. Fifty adults with hyperlipidemia were assigned into two groups: one group consumed cookies made from FiberCreme-IMO (n=25), and another consumed control cookies containing coconut milk powder (n=25). Each subject consumed 80 grams of cookies per day for four weeks. Serum triglycerides were measured at baseline and four weeks after treatment. Genotypes of ChREBP rs3812316 were analyzed at the end of the study using PCR-RFLP. FiberCreme-IMO cookies reduced the triglyceride levels compared to control cookies, but the reduction was not statistically significant (p&gt;0.05). There was no significant interaction between FiberCreme-IMO cookies and ChREBP rs3812316 on the triglyceride levels. This study suggests that FiberCreme-IMO ameliorated the triglyceride levels of hyperlipidemic subjects after four weeks of consumption.</p> Ruth Surya Wahyu Setyaning, Sunarti Sunarti, Arta Farmawati ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Inflammatory marker interleukin-6 in risk stratification of COVID-19 patients <p>The main purpose of this study is to determine the levels of interleukin-6 in COVID-19 patients and see if these inflammatory markers can speculate the extremity of COVID-19 patients. Therefore, previous work on serum ferritin levels in COVID-19 patients has been conducted by the authors as a presumptive observational study [11]. The study’s inclusion criteria comprised 100 individuals who were over the age of 18 and were diagnosed with COVID-19 by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction method for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2). The exclusion criterion was framed according to our previous study [11]. They were bifurcated into the following categories such as: mild to moderate (Group I) and severe to critical (Group II). IL-6 was quantified and evaluated in both groups using the chemiluminescent method [11]. Group I had a mean IL 6 value of 27 pg/ml, while Group II had a value of 126 pg/ml. COVID-19 individuals with elevated IL-6 levels had more indicative predictions, extremity, and serious illness, particularly in group II (P&lt;0.000), and constant in group I, IL-6 levels showed a statistically significant (P&lt;0.000) association with symptomatic indications, severity, and critical illness. Interleukin-6 can be used as a prediction factor for disease severity in the early diagnosis of COVID-19.</p> Farhana Begum, Murugavel Murugavel, Karpagavel Lakshmanan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Role of serum liver markers and elastography in liver fibrosis evaluation depending on body weight <p>Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) represents a significant yet often underestimated challenge in contemporary medicine, exerting a pivotal influence on the landscape of liver pathology. Acknowledging that official statistics fall short of capturing the genuine prevalence of DILI due to inherent underreporting, this article addresses the issue through a study concentrating on serum liver fibrosis markers among female breast cancer patients subjected to polychemotherapy. The research endeavors to scrutinize the prognostic significance of serum liver fibrosis markers. Additionally, the study investigates correlations among direct fibrosis markers in patients with diverse body weight statuses. The cohort, comprising 123 females, underwent categorization based on the severity of DILI post-polychemotherapy. Employing universal clinically significant indicators, specifically fibrosis indices (FIB-4, Fibrotest), the study comprehensively evaluated liver parenchymal damage using biochemical markers two months post-treatment. Results unveiled a positive correlation between TGF-β1 and Col-4 fibrosis markers and body mass index (BMI). With increasing BMI, levels of TGF-β1 and Col-4 escalated, notably exhibiting a 2.2 and 1.2 times increase, respectively, in obese individuals compared to those with normal weight. Furthermore, heightened TGF-β1 and Col-4 levels correlated with advanced fibrosis stages based on average Fibrotest and FIB-4 index values (r=0.720, p&lt;0.05 and r=0.716, p&lt;0.05) and (r=0.771, p&lt;0.05 and r=0.799, p&lt;0.05). These findings propose a potential link between stellate cell activation, necroinflammatory fibrosis, and type IV collagen expression initiation. Remarkably, TGF-β1 and Col-4 emerge as prospective markers for monitoring fibrosis progression in DILI post-chemotherapy, providing avenues for refined diagnosis and treatment strategies.</p> Oksana Prokopchuk, Ihor Hospodarskyy, Olha Kozak, Nadiia Gavryliuk, Svitlana Danchak ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of fermented milk Lactiplantibacillus pentosus HBUAS53657 on blood glucose, lipid profiles and inflammation in high-fat diet-induced mice <p>Lactobacillus pentosus strains with health-promoting properties, such as immunomodulatory and antiproliferative activities, are potential probiotic strains. L. pentosus HBUAS53657 is one of the most common strains found in dadih (buffalo fermented milk) originating from Tanjung Bonai Lintau Buo Utara. A previous study found that L. pentosus HBUAS53657 had probiotic characteristics. It is necessary to investigate the effect of L. pentosus HBUAS53657 fermented milk probiotics on inflammatory markers in experimental animals. This study is a true experimental design with only a post-test control group. The population consisted of Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) n=28 divided into four groups: the control group (ND), the High Fat Diet (HFD) group, the High Fat Diet and L. pentosus HBUAS53657 group 109 CFU/ml (HFDL), and the High Fat Diet and fermented milk with L. pentosus strain HBUAS53657 109 CFU/ml and 20% oranges group (HFDSF). This feeding was done for six weeks (42 days). The research data was processed and statistically analyzed using the Way ANOVA test, followed by the Post hoc test. The results showed that L. pentosus HBUAS53657 fermented milk slowed weight gain in rats given HFDSF by 15.36%, compared to 18.26% in the HFDL group and 24.30% in the HFD group (P&lt;0.01). When compared to the HFD group, the HFDSF and HFDL groups had lower blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL (p&lt;0.05, p&lt;0.01, P&lt;0.05). L. pentosus HBUAS53657 reduced the level of serum TNF-α on HFD but not significantly. This demonstrates the protective effect of L. pentosus HBUAS53657 on lipid metabolism disorders in rats fed high-fat rats. L. pentosus HBUAS53657 can reduce HFD-induced proinflammatory cytokines.</p> Susmiati Susmiati, Najmiatul Fitria, Ilfa Khairina, Huriya Alzahra ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 IL-6 polymorphism in patients with hepatitis B virus infection <p>Previous studies reported an association between some cytokines polymorphisms and human viral infections. In HBV infection, IL-6 plays a role in the induction of immune tolerance by inhibiting IL-1 and tumor necrosis factors, which exert anti-inflammatory properties and prevent cell damage. IL-6 has a potential role in HBV-induced hepatocellular carcinoma, liver fibrosis, and liver cirrhosis. IL-6 levels increased in subjects infected with hepatitis B virus, and genetic susceptibility was reported in viral infection. This study aims to determine IL-6 polymorphism in humans infected with hepatitis B virus. In this case-control study, 50 individuals with hepatitis C virus infection were included. The -174G/C promoter polymorphism of the IL-6 gene by Amplification Refractory Mutation System Polymerase Chain Reaction (ARMS-PCR) procedure. There were highly significant differences in (-174G/C) promoter polymorphism of IL-6 between the control group and the patients group. Two homozygous GG and CC genotypes were in patients, while one heterozygous (GC) and one homozygous (GG) genotype pattern was detected in controls. The GG and CC IL-6 (-174G/C) genotypes were predominant in patients compared to controls. In contrast, the GC IL-6 genotype was present in 52.5% of the controls, and none was found in HBV-infected patients. IL-6 GG genotype and G allele may be associated with HBV infection susceptibility in Iraqi subjects, and IL-6 gene plays a potential role in the pathogenicity of HBV infection. However, a large-scale study that included many positions was warranted.</p> Gailan Abdulrazaq Alsamarai, Amina Hamed Ahmed Alobaidi, Adnan Fadhil Alazawi, Abdulghani Mohamed Alsamarai ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The effectiveness of the WhatsApp-based self-care educational program on health-promoting behaviors in individuals with metabolic syndrome <p>Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Lifestyle modification and management of health-promoting behaviors (HPB) are the most important measures to control metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the WhatsApp-based self-care educational program on HPB in individuals with metabolic syndrome. The present study was a quasi-experimental performed on individuals with metabolic syndrome referred to comprehensive urban health centers in Iran. The samples consisted of 100 individuals with metabolic syndrome randomly assigned to either the experimental (n=50) or control (n=50) group. Data collection instruments included a demographic questionnaire and the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II (HPLP-II) to determine health-promoting status behaviors. The control and experimental groups were similar in terms of the total mean scores of HPB before the intervention. However, after performing it, the total mean scores of the HPB scale and its subscales were statistically significant in the intervention and control groups. In the intervention group, it was significantly higher than the control group (p&lt;0.0001). The results of the present study showed the positive effect of educational intervention using WhatsApp messenger on the HPB of individuals with metabolic syndrome.</p> Tayebeh Rakhshani, Ahmad Moradi, Sodabeh Qalavand, Leila Ghahremani, Mohammad Nikzadian, Maryam Nikbina ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Changes in the cytokine profile in patients with a combination of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary heart disease and hepatic steatosis under conditions of obesity <p>The problem of the cytokine balance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), arterial hypertension (AH), coronary heart disease (CHD) and hepatic steatosis (LS) requires further study. This study aims to evaluate the content of cytokines in patients with named diseases depending on obesity. We examined 24 outpatients and divided them into 3 groups (overweight, class I obesity, and class II obesity). In addition to standard examinations, the levels of insulin, C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin, oral glucose tolerance test, non-esterified fatty acids, leptin, resistin, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), selectin, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-2 were determined; triglyceride-glucose and leptin-resistin ratios, leptin-body mass and Castelli-I, -II indices were calculated. The cytokine profile in ObI was characterized by a significant increase in selection (181.5%; p=0.07) together with a decrease in IL-6 (59.3%, p&gt;0.05) and TNFα (74.7%, p0.05), whereas in ObII - by an increase in leptin (219%, p&lt;0.05) and IL-2 (122%, p&gt;0.05), a slight decrease in increased selection (145%, p&gt;0.05) compared to overweight group. We proposed formulas for cytokine profiles. In obese patients, cytokines correlated with transaminases, lipids, and T2DM, AH, and CHD duration. Cytokine profiles of patients with class I and II obesity are different, which can explain the obesity paradox; an exponential growth of leptin is observed in class II obesity.</p> Orest Komarytsia, Olena Radchenko, Myroslava Borovets, Larisa Strilchuk, Serhii Stadnik ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The effect of OMEGA-3 and OMEGA-6 fatty acids on allergic and asthmatic patients – A cross-sectional analysis <p>Allergy is an abnormally extended and evolved sensitivity to specific substances, whereas asthma is constriction of the airways of the lungs due to swelling of internal walls of the airways. Dietary consumption of omega-3 and omega-6 supplementation may help in the prevention of allergies and asthma. The objective of this investigation was to assess the effectiveness of omega 3 and 6 supplementation on patients who were suffering from asthma or any allergy. A cross-sectional study on 100 patients with asthma and different types of allergies was conducted at different hospitals in Lahore. They were given a questionnaire to accumulate input about their dietary practices, understanding, and awareness. Data was analyzed by using SPSS 22.0. Results showed that 40% of patients had mild improvement in symptoms, 28% exhibited good responses, and 32% had no progress in their symptoms at all. About 27% of patients took omega 3 and 6 supplementations weekly, while 36% used to take them daily, and 37% never took the supplementation. It was concluded that most of those patients who took the omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids supplementations showed mild improvement as compared to those who were not taking supplements. People taking omega 3 and 6 food sources such as fish, nuts, legumes, and meat faced fewer symptoms.</p> Ayesha Aslam, Nida Javaid, Musammat Manzoor, Iqra Waheed, Mariam Fatima, Eman Rashid, Wajeeha Arooj, Quratulain Shahid, Ahood Khalid, Tanzeel Shahid, Zoya Abid ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A case series of subacute thyroiditis associated with COVID-19 infection <p>Subacute thyroiditis can be one of the clinical manifestations of COVID-19, as has been reported in several previous cases. ACEI receptors are found in several cells and tissues of the body, one of which is in thyroid follicular cells, thus making the thyroid gland a potential target for entry of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This case series describes that subacute thyroiditis is one of the clinical manifestations of COVID-19. All patients underwent an anamnesis, physical examination, examination of serum thyroid hormone TSH and FT4, inflammatory markers (CRP), and thyroid ultrasound during hospitalization. In this case series, it was reported that 7 confirmed COVID-19 patients with positive RT-PCR results had clinical symptoms of hyperthyroidism; the most common symptom is palpitation with the onset of varying. The results of laboratory examinations in four patients showed a decrease in FT4 levels, while in 3 patients, the FT4 was within normal limits. In all patients, there was a decrease in TSH and an increase in inflammatory markers (CRP). In one patient, an ultrasound examination of the thyroid found thyroiditis. The patient gets antithyroid therapy, steroids and b-blocker drugs for rate control. Of patients with outcome, 6 (86%) recovered and 1 (14%) died. We report a case series of thyroiditis that can be a clinical manifestation of COVID-19 infection. Clinicians should be aware of the manifestations of thyroiditis in COVID-19 patients. Early diagnosis and early therapy will provide good outcomes for COVID-19 patients.</p> Muhammad Hafiz Aini, Fhathia Avisha, Heydi Marizky Lisman, Devi Nurfadila Fani, Nita Widjaya ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Chondroitin sulfate in osteoarthritis management among diabetic patients: molecular mechanisms and clinical potential <p>Osteoarthritis and type 2 diabetes mellitus are two prevalent chronic conditions that impose a substantial burden on healthcare systems worldwide. The comorbidity of type 2 diabetes mellitus and osteoarthritis (especially in individuals with overweight/obesity) presents a formidable challenge due to the potential synergistic effects of these conditions on metabolism and joint health. Chronic low-grade systemic inflammation plays a pivotal role in the development of both type 2 diabetes mellitus and osteoarthritis and is a common feature they share. Chondroitin sulfate is a naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan integral to the structure and function of articular cartilage. It has gained attention as a potential therapeutic agent for osteoarthritis due to its multifaceted mechanisms of action, including an effect on transcriptional factors and signaling pathways associated with chronic low-grade systemic inflammation. Chondroitin sulfate originated from natural sources, including standardized small marine fish extract, and can be regarded as a promising means in the therapy of osteoarthritis and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It can serve as an illustrative medication able to alleviate NF-κB-mediated inflammatory and metabolic disorders. Standardized small marine fish extract demonstrates anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, anti-hypertensive, and wound healing properties.</p> Olexandr Kuryata, Oleh Akimov, Sofiia Denisenko, Heorhii Kostenko, Viktoriia Kostenko, Arthur Mishchenko, Natalia Solovyova, Vitalii Kostenko ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Association of urinary biomarkers of chronic kidney disease with type 2 diabetes <p>This extensive review can assist the researcher in assembling and constricting the study’s hypothesis on the molecular mechanism of CKD, which is more prevalent in type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. It targets the role of urinary biomarkers and their importance compared to serum markers involved in CKD-associated T2D patients. This review highlights the significance of urinary exosomal RNAs, including expressions of miRNA and ncRNA, involved in the molecular diagnosis of renal injury. Next-generation sequencing and ncRNASeqScan serve as an emerging bioinformatic tool to predict the ncRNAs in urinary exosomes and to pattern transcriptomes extensively. Urinary biomarkers of CKD provide a primary target source in the prognosis of the disease, whereas their levels in serum are significantly high after the progression of CKD. Hence, biomarkers are heterogeneous groups of factors executing several molecular mechanisms involved in various signal transduction pathways occurring on the cell surface.</p> Farhana Begum, Janani Ramesh, Karpagavel Lakshmanan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The predictors to medication adherence among adults with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis <p>This study aimed to investigate predictors of medication adherence among adults with type 2 diabetes. This article was compiled using a systematic review and meta-analysis study conducted by searching for articles from databases in electronic form, including EMBASE, PubMed, and Science Direct. The inclusion criteria for this study were full articles using a cross-sectional study, with the publication year until 2022. The analysis of articles in this study using RevMan 5.3 software. A random-effect model was used when heterogeneity was observed to pool the studies, and the results were reported via adjusted odds ratio and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 5 articles reviewed in the meta-analysis (consisting 4 articles in each variable) showed that respondents with a strong belief in anti-diabetic medicines (AOR=0.53; 95% CI=0.38 to 0.75; p=0.0003) and high knowledge of diabetes mellitus (AOR=0.85; 95% CI=0.79 to 0.93; p=0.0005) had a lower level of non-adherence to anti-diabetic medication. A strong belief in anti-diabetic medicines and a high knowledge of diabetes mellitus can lower non-adherence to anti-diabetic medication.</p> Artha Budi Susila Duarsa, Aris Widiyanto, Santy Irene Putri, Ayu Anulus, Joko Tri Triatmojo, Asruria Sani Fajriah ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000