Providing preclinical prediction of diabetic retinopathy via oxidative stress levels
Background and aims: Although diabetic retinopathy(DR) is a disease that develops due to diabetes mellitus(DM), it also brings problems in the clinic. Depending on the diagnosis and related developments, the role of metabolites that cause stress in the cell and disorders in metabolism should be constantly reviewed. We aim to examine inflammation, oxidative stress levels, and DNA damage in DM and DR patients. Material and method: A total of 3 groups of 30 patients with a 5-year history of DM, 30 patients with a 5-year history of DR, and healthy individuals with the same demographic characteristics as both patient groups, between the ages of 45 and 65 who came to the Bezmialem Vakif University Faculty of Medicine Ophthalmology Outpatient Clinic were included. Total antioxidant status(TAS), total oxidant status(TOS), total thiol(TT), and native thiol(NT) of patients and healthy individuals by photometric methods; inflammation biomarkers interleukin-1 beta(IL-1β), interleukin-6(IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α) were measured by photometric methods with commercially purchased ELISA kits. Results: Oxidative stress and inflammation were statistically increased in both DR and DM patients, and antioxidant levels were statistically decreased in both DR and DM patients(p<0,01). IL-1β levels(p<0.001), TNF-α, and IL-6 levels(p<0.01) were found statistically significant and high. DNA damage was found higher in patients with DR compared to both the control group(p<0.001) and the patient group with DM(p<0.001). Conclusions: Increased oxidative stress and prominent inflammation in DR patients may provide clinical guidance on the pathogenesis, prognosis, and treatment strategies of the disease.