FEEDING, BIRTH WEIGHT AND RANK INFLUENCE ON THE RISK OF DIABETES MELLITUS IN CHILDREN
Background: The etiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus supposes the existence of genetic factors, but also environmental ones, of nutritional, fetal (e.g. birth weight) perinatal nature. This study aims at identifying food, rank and birth weight impact on the risk of developing this trouble. Material and method: 192 children suffering from type 1 diabetes mellitus registered in the Centers for Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases of Iaşi and Suceava have been included in the study. We used anamnesis data regarding birth weight, birth rank, feeding type in the first months of life, in order to establish the risk of developing type 1 diabetes mellitus. The statistic processing has been performed by means of SPSS 17 specialized program. Results: There is a significant connection between the type of food and diabetes mellitus: the risk of developing diabetes mellitus is 4.45 times (RR=4.45) higher in the babies fed with milk formulae compared to the ones fed with breast milk. Breast-feeding duration was significantly shorter in the babies with diabetes mellitus (4 months ± 1.76 DS) compared to breast-feeding duration in babies belonging to the control group (6.56 months ± 2.74 DS). With respect to the birth weight, we can notice significantly high statistical values for the group of babies suffering from diabetes mellitus. The distribution of birth weight frequencies has the normal form of Gaussian curve, but with the extension of the right extremity, corresponding to LGA. With respect to birth rank, we can notice a predominance of the first and second child, however without a statistical significance. Conclusions: The multivariate analysis allows us to create a risk profile of the child with diabetes mellitus: the high birth weight determines a risk 2.17 times higher, the artificial feeding, a risk 4.35 times higher of developing diabetes mellitus, while the long breast-feeding duration shows a protective factor. The correct identification and the modification of these risk factors represent methods in which a large number of new cases of diabetes mellitus in babies can be prevented.