THERAPY WITH GLP-1 AGONISTS AND DIPEPTIDYL-PEPTIDASE IV INHIBITORS IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS
Since type 2 diabetes is increasing and most patients do not reach their therapeutic goals, novel treatment options are needed. The novel therapeutic options for type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM); respectively those based on the action of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were introduced in practice in 2005. Incretin therapies consist in two classes: the injectable GLP-1 receptor agonists only acting on the GLP-1 receptor and dipeptidyl-peptidase inhibitors (DPP-4 inhibitors) as oral medications which increase endogenous GLP-1 and other hormone levels by inhibiting their degradation. In Type 2 DM therapy, incretin-based therapies are attractive and frequently used due to their action and safety profile. Insulin secretion stimulation and glucagon secretion inhibition by the above-mentioned drugs occur in a glucose-dependent manner. However, incretinbased therapies have no risk for hypoglycemias. This review gives data of the mechanism of action of these substances and clinical information.