Relationship of angiotensin converting enzyme (I/D) polymorphism (rs4646994) and ischemic heart disease in Iraqi patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Insertion deletion (I/D) polymorphism (rs4646994) in the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) has a substantial effect on coronary heart disease (CHD). The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the ACE gene polymorphism and CHD in Iraqi patients with and without type2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The amplification of an Alu repetitive element in an intron of the ACE has shown three potential genotypes of I/I and D/D as homozygous, and I/D as heterozygous. A case-control study of total 217 individuals participated in this study, and they were divided into three groups; Group 1 including 86 patients who was had CHD with T2DM, group 2 including 78 patients who had CHD without T2DM, and group 3 including 53 age and sex-matched healthy individuals (as a control group). Genotyping of ACE (I/D) gene was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Our data showed a significant D/D genotype frequency in the ACE in CHD patients compared to the healthy individuals (OR=4.39, CI 1.57223-12.2749, P<0.0048), whereas I/D genotype dose not effect (OR=1.1009, CI 0.5540 - 2.1878). This suggested that the D/D genotype is an independent risk factor for CHD in Iraqi patients with and without T2DM. We conclude that the D/D genotype is implicated as a risk factor for CHD patients, in the Iraqi population. However, larger sample sizes are needed to monitor the CHD patients and to validate this study.