Inherited or acquired in hypertension and chronic kidney disease in diabetes mellitus patients
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a common and serious microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), which is characterized by an elevated urinary albumin excretion rate, elevated blood pressure, and declined renal function. Approximately 30–40% of DM patients will develop DKD, which is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and renal failure .Genetic factors appear critical in DKD pathogenesis based upon the evidence including aggregation in families, variable incidence rates of DKD between different races, and the highly heritable nature of diabetic renal clinic and histologic changes . Each 10-mmHg increase in mean systolic blood pressure( BP) was associated with a 15% increase in the hazard ratio for development of both micro- and macroalbuminuria and impaired kidney function defined as eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 or doubling of the blood creatinine level .Broadly, a baseline systolic BP >140 mmHg in patients with DM2 has been associated with higher risk of ESRD and death . The ACE genes may predict diabetic nephropathy in some groups, the rate of progression and the antiproteinuric response to ACE inhibitors.