Emerging evidence on the association between COVID-19 and Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes and COVID-19
Objective: Published studies demonstrate that diagnosis with T2DM places patients at risk of severe symptoms and increased mortality from COVID-19. The literature was reviewed to understand emerging evidence.
Method: A review of published studies on COVID-19 in patients with diabetes was conducted to identify the needs and optimal practice for the local population diagnosed with diabetes at risk of Covid-19.
Key Findings: The combined sample was n=18746 where all patients were diagnosed with T2DM and COVID-19. The severity of symptoms was reported in n=7646. Most reported were fever, (32%) cough (26%) chest tightness (8%). The causes of death were reported in n=3260. The main causes of death were: COVID-19 (76%), Acute respiratory distress (5%). Other comorbidities were reported in n= 6968. The most reported comorbidities were hypertension (38%) cardiovascular (10%), pulmonary disease (3%). Other risk factors were reported in n= 6968. Those most reported were diabetes, (80%) cardiovascular abnormalities (10%), hyperglycaemia not previously diagnosed as diabetes (9%). The reported effects of antidiabetic medications on COVID-19 disease was reviewed for emerging evidence.
Conclusions: Published studies underline the importance of maintaining weight, glycaemic control, good hydration and exercising as much as possible. Patients need to be informed to present to hospital promptly if developing COVID-19 symptoms. Normal T2DM therapy can be maintained in patients with no, or mild symptoms. On presentation to hospital with severe COVID-19 disease, diabetes control maybe maintained with insulin, concurrent with hydration and metabolic parameters maintenance until the patient is recovered.