ASSESSMENT OF NERVE CONDUCTION STUDY AND ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM ABNORMALITIES IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS
Background and aims: This study aims to evaluate the electroencephalographic and nerve conduction changes in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with and without peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and to investigate the relationship with other variables such as age, gender, duration of the diabetes and the degree of metabolic control. Materials and methods: This was a cross- sectional study, including 100 patients with T2DM and 100 control subjects, aged 34 to 77 years. All patients enrolled in the study were subjected to full assessment, including: history, biochemical and electrophysiological tests. Results: The study found that patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in comparison to patients without DPN and control subjects were older, had longer duration of diabetes and poorer glycemic control reflected by fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin. The electrophysiological findings showed that patients with DPN have significant differences in nerve conduction study (NCS) parameters when compared to patients without DPN and control subjects in the form of axonal degeneration and demyelination. They also had abnormalities of the electroencephalogram (EEG) which are correlated with nerve conduction study severity. Conclusion: Routine NCS is an important method for evaluating DPN. Investigating sensory nerves of lower limbs is helpful in discovering the early stages of DPN when other tested nerves are normal. The F-wave can be used as a sensitive indicator for the early diagnosis of DPN and it can help to detect the subclinical lesions. EEG examination in diabetic patients with severe DPN is important in showing the defect in the central nervous system.